Given the importance of the water resources in Indonesia, the governments of Republic of Indonesia just recently issued Law No. 17 of 2019 on Water Resources (“Water Resource Law”) to reform the former water resources law. Previously, according to Law No. 7 of 2004 on Water Resources (which has been nulliﬁed by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia), the individual or business entities were allowed to obtain the rights to exploit and/or utilize water, including for the purpose to provide the drinking water. The Water Resource Law, however, provides a stricter requirement as the rights of the private sector to exploit and/or utilize the water resource are tightly limited to certain conditions.